Enzymes are an important type of protein, along with many others, that are imperative for the proper functioning of biological systems. There is pressure to find more sources of fish feed for aquaculture that are sustainable, so many researchers have been attempting to improve the value of nutrition that is found in fish feed and they are doing this through enzyme supplementation.
Due to the expansion of global aquaculture production, there is an increased demand for aquaculture feeds. The main ingredient, and one of the most critical ingredients, is fish meal when it comes to aquafeed production. The downside is that the cost of fishmeal is increasing which is prompting feed manufacturers to seek out less expensive protein sources, including plant proteins. Usually, commercial fish feeds contain a high amount of fish meal and it makes up anywhere from 30 to 50 percent of the protein source in the fish meal. In today’s world, fish meal is being avoided if at all possible due to its high cost as well as the fact that it is very scarce. This has forced the aquaculture nutrition industry to work hard to improve the nutritional value of fish feed through enzyme supplementation over the last few decades.
Reasons for Feed Enzymes for Shrimp and Fish
When it comes to fish and shrimp, the feeding of enzymes has become more popular in the aquaculture sector over the past few years and there are many reasons for feed enzymes for shrimp and fish. Enzymes, such as exogenous enzymes, are now extensively used throughout the world as additives in many different animals’ diets. Supplementing with enzymes can also help to eliminate the adverse effects of antinutritional factors while improving the utilization of amino acids as well as dietary energy, which results in improved performance in both fish and shrimps.
The main purpose of implementing enzymes into shrimp and fish feeds is to facilitate the improvement of the digestive system in animals as well as fish and shrimp. This is because the digestive processes work better and there is an improved feed efficiency when extra doses of enzymes are utilized. Many aquatic animals have a lack of certain types of digestive enzymes, especially during their early development, and some even throughout their entire lives. When it comes to fishes and shrimps that lack many different enzymes even in their adulthood, feeding these enzymes to them results in improving their digestive systems while being able to utilize nutrient fractions better since they are digested by the enzymes instead.
When it comes to different types of protein and biological systems, enzymes are very important since one of their most important characteristics is that they can catalyze the rate of a reaction but they themselves will not be altered by it. Enzymes can become involved in all different types of anabolic and catabolic pathways in the digestion process as well as the process of metabolism. Enzymes can become very specific catalysts that act on, or can at least limit, a group of compounds that are called substrates. Enzymes can also provide many powerful tools that can prohibit antinutritional factors while enhancing the nutritional value of plant-based protein in fish and shrimp feeds. In other words, enzymes can provide a very natural way to transform feed components that are complex into very absorbable nutrients.
The main reason enzymes need to be added to shrimp and fish feed is the nutrient utilization that is improved from the enzymes while reducing the cost of the feed as well as the excretion of nutrients into the environment.
Sources of Enzymes
Basically, enzymes are produced in all living organisms from animals and plants to the simplest unicellular forms of life that there are on the planet since they are very essential throughout the metabolic process. There are several microorganisms that are normally used in the production of a variety of different enzymes, such as bacteria and fungus.
The bacteria normally used include Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus amyloliquifaciens and Bacillus stearothermophils. Triochoderma longibrachiatum, Asperigillus oryzae , Asperigillus niger and yeast are the types of fungus that are normally utilized in producing enzymes.
When it comes to the digestion of food and animals, it is normally carried out by the animal’s digestive system as well as by microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract. The bacteria that are present in the gastrointestinal tract of fish and shrimp are very potent producers of proteolytic enzymes and can produce a moderate amount of cellulase. By adding live microorganisms to diets to facilitate the production of enzymes, it makes it possible to be used in specialty feed production. Most larger commercial enzyme processes rely heavily on enzymes that are produced by microbial fermentation technology.
Aquafeed Anti-Nutritional Characteristics
When it comes to aquafeed, there are several antinutritional factors that come into play, such as the fact that some ingredients from plant sources can contain compounds that fish and shrimp have trouble digesting or cannot digest at all. This hinders their digestive system from producing the required amount of enzymes to digest the food and facilitate a healthy digestive system. The use of enzymes and feed for fish and shrimp can increase the quality as well as the byproducts that they put back into the environment. There is also a reduced cost associated with the process of using enzymes in the feed for shrimp and fish.
It is important to purchase high-quality enzymes for fish and shrimp feed. It is very important to source microbials and enzymes from a professional and trustworthy source, such as American Biosystems, which offers top-quality products for use in fish and shrimp feed.